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【独家】可再生甲烷取代重油及船用柴油
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  科学家们不厌其烦地提出船运污染排放物的危害。颗粒物、硫氧化物和氮氧化物会危害环境,并危及沿岸居民的健康。现在,巴登-符腾堡太阳能和氢研究中心(ZSW)研发的能量-气体(P2G®)甲烷技术刚好可以化解这个问题。这种合成气燃烧时几乎不释放颗粒, 因此,它将是一种环境友好型的船舶和汽车燃料。

  游轮、货船和渡轮出海时会向海里排放数以吨记的污染物。环保主义者和健康专家再三警告称,硫和氮氧化物、颗粒物和二氧化碳会污染空气,危害环境,威胁人们的健康,这些危害的影响甚至远远超出对主要港口城市的影响。当船只运行柴油发电机发电时,它们即使停泊在港口都会排放大量废气。在海上,船只上的发动机靠重型燃油运行,重型燃油价格虽然略显便宜但污染远远超过船用柴油。因此,现在欧盟法规已禁止在沿海水域使用重型燃油。黑色的烟雾充斥着毒素,煤烟颗粒严重危害人们的健康。最近由慕尼黑的亥姆霍兹中心、罗斯托克大学和其他机构进行的一项研究发现,这些微粒会导致严重的肺部疾病。

  “航运对空气的污染,以及对人类和气候的影响一直被低估了,”ZSW的研究员迈克尔.斯帕切博士说。ZSW可再生燃料与加工部的领导补充说, 颗粒过滤器可以作为短期的权宜之计对船运污染问题加以控制,但若能利用P2G®技术将有害的重油和船用柴油换成清洁燃烧的碳中性甲烷,似乎更见成效。

  P2G®概念背后是将多余的可再生电力通过电解转换成氢。这种可持续的氢,反过来可以结合二氧化碳,再转化成甲烷,然后储存在天然气网中或直接作为碳中性燃料供家庭、工业使用或用于中性气体驱动的各种车辆。目前,关于这种气候友好型流动技术的可行性已经在几个研究项目中成功得到证明,ZSW也与几家商业企业建立了合作团队,拟将这项技术向市场推广。

  萨克森镇韦尔特有一座6兆瓦的工业电厂,是ZSW的研究人员与其一起建造运营的,具有多年的P2G®技术研发和示范经验。 “甲烷可以转化为液化天然气。该技术可用来驱动船用发动机和车载发电机,目前已经被用于内河运输。这里几乎没有颗粒物排放,” 斯帕切说。

  然而,化石液化天然气并不是ZSW科学家的万金油。首先, 甲烷可能会在运输时逃逸到大气中;另外,欧洲对进口天然气的依赖程度或将媲美现在对外国石油的依赖程度。但是,利用电力-气体方法, 德国及其他欧洲国家自己就可以生产可再生燃料了。

  “有了可再生电力转化的液化天然气,船舶便能以碳中性、不含硫的方法运行,“斯帕切说。其他污染物也会大大降低。IAV集团2015年10月开始的一项比较研究显示, 天然气驱动的汽车不仅产生的颗粒物少了99%,它还比一个柴油机驱动的汽车模型少排放了90%的氮氧化物 (欧6标准)。斯帕切表示,这些数据可以近似地转移到船运中。如今,电能可以以电力效率50%左右转化为液化天然气。“如果我们扩大可再生能源发电的能力,并且继续在非石油燃料时代的道路上前行,我们就能够成功,“斯帕切说。欧盟委员会显然很支持斯帕切的观点: 2016年7月20日, 在其新宣布的《欧洲低排放流动性战略》中,就明确提倡在船运和陆运中使用液化天然气和电力-气体技术。(本文由中国环保网www.chinaenvironment.com 高晶 翻译,如需转载,请注明出处)


原文:Regenerative Methane rather than Heavy Fuel Oil and Marine Diesel

Clean shipping with ZSW's power-to-gas process


  Time and again, scientists have pointed to the hazards of pollutant emissions from shipping. Particulate matter, sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide harm the environment and endanger coast-dwellers' health. This problem can be defused by methane, preferably produced using the power-to-gas (P2G®) process developed by the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW). This synthetic gas releases virtually no particulate matter when it combusts, making it a climate-friendly fuel for ships and other vehicles.

  Cruise ships, freighters and ferries emit tons of pollutants when they set out to sea. Environmentalists and health experts have repeatedly warned that sulfur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and carbon dioxide pollute the air, endanger the environment, and threaten the health of people, even of those far beyond major port cities. When ships run their diesel generators to produce the electricity used on board, they emit a massive amount of exhaust gases even when berthed in ports. Out at sea, ships' engines run on heavy fuel oil, which is cheaper but far more polluting than marine diesel. European Union regulations now prohibit its use in coastal waters. The black fumes are rife with toxins, and the soot particles are held to be particularly hazardous to people's health. A recent study conducted by Munich's Helmholtz Center, the University of Rostock and other institutions found that these particles can cause serious lung diseases.

  "Air pollution from shipping and the impact on humans and the climate have long been underestimated," says ZSW researcher Dr. Michael Specht. The head of ZSW's department “Renewable Fuels and Processes” added that particulate filters could serve as a short-term stopgap to keep the problem in check, but it would be more effective to replace harmful heavy fuel oil and marine diesel with clean-burning, carbon-neutral methane produced by the P2G® process.

  The concept behind P2G® is to convert excess renewable electricity into hydrogen by way of electrolysis. This sustainable hydrogen, in turn, can then be combined with carbon dioxide — preferably the biogenic kind — and converted into methane that is stored within the natural gas grid or used directly in households, industry and as a carbon-neutral fuel for natural gas-powered vehicles. The feasibility of this alternative for climate-friendly mobility has already been demonstrated successfully in several research projects, and ZSW has teamed up with commercial enterprises to bring the underlying technology to market.

  An industrial six-megawatt plant is up and running at the Lower Saxony town of Werlte, and ZSW researchers contributed to its construction and operation with their many years' experience researching, developing and demonstrating P2G® in action.

"Methane can be converted into LNG, or liquefied natural gas. The technology for it to drive marine engines and on-board power generators is available and is already being used for inland waterway transportation. Virtually no particulate matter is emitted here," says Specht.

  Fossil LNG, however, does not provide the solution that ZSW scientists have in mind. For one, this methane can escape into the atmosphere during transport; for the other, Europe would then be as heavily dependent on gas imports as it is now on foreign oil. The power-to-gas method, however, allows the production of renewable fuel in Germany and other European countries.

  "With LNG based on renewable electricity, ships will be able to use it to run in a carbon-neutral and sulfur-free way," said Specht. Other pollutants would also be greatly reduced. A comparison made by the IAV Group from October of 2015 shows that a car powered by natural gas not only produces 99 percent less particulate matter; it also emits 90 percent less nitrogen oxide than a diesel-driven model (Euro 6). Specht said that these figures can be transferred analogously to shipping.

  Today electrical power can be converted into LNG with around 50 percent efficiency. "We can live with that if we expand production capacity for regenerative electricity and keep heading down this path to a post-fossil fuel era," said Specht. The Commission of the European Union evidently shares Specht's viewpoint: In its new European strategy for low-emission mobility announced on July 20, 2016, it expressly advocates the use of LNG and power-to-gas in shipping and trucking.



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